INSIGHTS INTO INTERNATIONAL BEST PRACTICES IN THE AREA OF INNOVATION TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER FROM UNIVERSITIES TO BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT
Keywords:technology transfer, business environment, technology transfer office, science park, best practices
The article seeks to explore best international practices of innovation technology transfer from higher education institutions to business environment from the position of an expanded approach to understanding the concept of "technology transfer" in world practice which is used to cover a wider range of activities (in particular, through boosting technology transfer practices in universities as a separate activity type within the traditional knowledge triangle: education – research – business. In this context, technology transfer is viewed as a process of knowledge exchange, including consultancy, joint research, contract-based research as well as other forms of joint new knowledge creation. The study offers insights into best practices in the four top 20 world countries by the highest payment rates for the use of intellectual property which contributes to better understanding of the pathways to develop an effective system of technology transfer in Ukraine. It is argued that Ukrainian universities should create targeted centres for technology transfer with government support and implement best international experience of building similar systems in the developed countries (USA, Japan, France, Spain, etc.). The research findings have revealed that in most developed world countries with the highest royalty rates for the use of intellectual property, the best way to ensure an effective technology transfer is to create an organisational network where at a regional or at the national level a centre is established that accumulates not only financial and human resources but also generates information database and accumulates best practice to enhance and spur the effective commercialization of university R&D. In the context of the key strategic guidelines in technology transfer development for Ukrainian universities, it is suggested they should focus on the following priorities: promoting innovation research and development to respond to market demands; establishing research centres and science parks; increasing the motivation of academic staff for more active research and startup project engagement following the principle of "education through research", as well as the creation of a full-service centre that will carry out a full cycle of activities to support research commercialization, both in universities and at the government level.